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Biochemistry science concept with molecules on blue background

Branch of science which deals with the changes and manipulation in the living organisms or enzymes for the welfare of the human use Read more


Biochemistry science concept with molecules on blue background

uses-in medication for making the medicines such as insulins and so on 

Basic principle of biotechnology

The wide concept of “biotech” or “biotechnology” encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of the plants, and “improvements” to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies. The American Chemical Society defines biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the genes readmore

Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests,[37] diseases,[38] stressful environmental conditions,[39] resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide[40]), reduction of spoilage,[41] or improving the nutrient profile of the crop.[42] Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents,[43] biofuels,[44] and other industrially useful goods,[45] as well as for bioremediation.[46][47]

Farmers have widely adopted GM technology. Between 1996 and 2011, the total surface area of land cultivated with GM crops had increased by a factor of 94, from 17,000 square kilometers (4,200,000 acres) to 1,600,000 km2 (395 million acres).[48] 10% of the world’s crop lands were planted with GM crops in 2010.[48] As of 2011, 11 different transgenic crops were grown commercially on 395 million acres (160 million hectares) in 29 countries such as the US, Brazil, Argentina, India, Canada, China, Paraguay, Pakistan, South Africa, Uruguay, Bolivia, Australia, Philippines, Myanmar, Burkina Faso, Mexico and Spain.[48]

Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA with the methods of genetic engineering. These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new crop traits as well as a far greater control over a food’s genetic structure than previously afforded by methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.[49] Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato.[50] To date most genetic modification of foods have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybeancorncanola, and cotton seed oil. These have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have also been experimentally developed; in November 2013 none were available on the market,[51] but in 2015 the FDA approved the first GM salmon for commercial production and consumption.[52]

There is a scientific consensus[53][54][55][56][57][58][59] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,[60][61][62][63][64][65][66] but that each GM food must be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.[67][68][69] Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than        read more